Citing References - Oxford System

In the Oxford system the citations in the text normally consist of a raised (superscript) number and a list of footnotes at the bottom of the page for all citations on that page.

If you write complete bibliographic information in the footnote about the document cited (see footnote 1 below) it is sometimes not necessary to include a reference list. Please check with your teacher/supervisor if you are uncertain! If a reference list is to be included all references cited in the text should be included in alphabetical order at the end of the paper/report. If you only include abridged bibliographic information about the documents cited (footnote 2 below) a reference list should normally be provided. For more information about how to write references for specific documents, see Writing references Oxford.


The footnote may contain complete bibliographic information (footnote 1) and if applicable page number(s) or more concise bibliographic information (footnote 2). If a document/source is cited several times in the text you can also use abridged bibliographic information (author´s family name, title and page number(s) or equivalent), footnote 2 below. Use “ibid.” (=same as last entry) when two references in a row are from the same source (footnote 3) and state page number(s) if different (and applicable).

Footnote with Complete Bibliographic Information

1 Alan Bryman. Social research methods. 3. ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008, 65

Footnote with Abridged Bibliographic Information

2 Bryman. Social research methods, 79

Footnote when two References in a Row are from the same Source

3 Ibid, 83