Copyright Law

(Please note, some of the links below refer to Swedish pages. The legal conditions described concern Swedish copyright law)

When writing a text to be published as an article, a book, dissertation, essay or report, you are automatically protected by copyright law. There is no formal registration required to get this protection, but the work must have some sort of originality or distinctive character. The work is then protected up to 70 years after the death of its originator. The right to copy pages from copyright protected works is very limited. 


If you would like to indicate that your dissertation is protected in accordance with copyright law you may note on the back of the title page: "This work is protected in accordance with the copyright law (URL 1960:729)." This phrase is preferred to using the copyright symbol © which in Sweden lacks legal significance. Please note that copyright owners to various material you have included in your dissertation may have different demands regarding the printed and the digital version of your dissertation.


Most of the scholarly journals allow self-archiving a copy of your article or other publication making it freely available in e.g. DiVA. Specific restrictions may apply in the policy of the publishing house, e.g. regarding where, how and when self-archiving may be allowed. The Publishing Team at Umeå University Library may assist you if you have questions regarding the process.

The Web, Images and Maps

Copyright is applicable in the same way on the web as otherwise. Maps, images, photographs as well as illustrations are protected by copyright law and need permission to be used. Images available for you via the image archives, which Umeå University Library has entered into agreement with, have concurrent user licenses, but you need to check if they are consistent with what you plan to do with the pictures.

Legal Text

Copyright is regulated in the copyright law (1960:729). Additional clauses may be found in upphovsrättsförordningen (1993:1212) and internationella upphovsrättsförordningen (1994:193).