Common Reference Systems

Harvard

Harvard is also known as the author-year-style or parenthetical referencing. For more information see Writing references -Harvard. APA is very similar to Harvard. The most visible difference is that for APA the year is put in brackets in the reference list. Writing references - Harvard

Oxford

Oxford is also known as the footnote system. For more information see Writing references - Oxford. Writing references - Oxford

APA

APA is a version of author-year-system that is similar to Harvard. The most visible difference is that for APA the year is put in brackets in the reference list. In APA you do not write page number(s) in the in-text reference (unless you’re quoting). How-to guide: APA citation style (Concordia libraries)

Vancouver

Vancouver is commonly used within the medical and biomedical field. The in-text references consist of numbers in chronological order. Information about the references is then provided in the reference list according to the chronological order they appear in the text. Vancouver style (Monash University Library, Australia)

IEEE

IEEE is very similar Vancouver. IEEE is often used by engineering disciplines. IEEE style (Jönköping university library, Sweden)

MLA

MLA is similar to Harvard. Author and page number(s) should be written in the in-text reference. The major difference between MLA and Harvard is that for MLA year is not written in the in-text reference. How-to guide: MLA citation style (Concordia libraries)

Turabian

How-to guide: Turabian citation style (Concordia libraries)