Researchers publish their research in different publications: scholarly books, doctoral theses, conference proceedings and reports. Researchers also publish their research in scholarly articles. Keep in mind that the scholarly (scientific) status for different publications varies. Publications which have undergone some kind of review by peers have higher status.
Scholarly books (academic, scientific)
Researchers may publish chapters in books edited by well-established researchers. Sometimes these books go through a peer-review process similar to that of scholarly journals, but in other cases the editors review the articles. Sometimes it may be difficult to distinguish between scholarly books and student texts books which have university students as their main audience. If you are unsure of the status of a book you can use similar criteria as when you are assessing a scholarly article. Please check with the University Library or your teacher/supervisor if you are unsure.
Doctoral thesis (PhD thesis, dissertation)
In order to get their doctoral degree the doctoral student has to report his studies in the form of a thesis (PhD thesis). The doctoral thesis is publicly defended at a seminar. The opponent is a highly qualified academic, in Sweden normally at least associate professor. An examining committee then decides upon the approval or the rejection of the doctoral thesis.
A licentiate's degree may be taken before the doctoral degree. After the licentiate thesis some choose to go on to write a doctoral (PhD) thesis. A licentiate thesis is also defended publicly at a seminar with an opponent and afterwards an examining committee approves or rejects the thesis.
Researchers with similar interests have a need for exchanging ideas and meeting each other. Sometimes this is done at conferences (symposiums). Researchers often present their research at a conference and this might result in a short article. Sometimes these articles are reviewed by peers.
Working papers and reports
University departments or research institutes might also publish research in report series. The main purpose of working papers/reports is to account for ongoing or completed research. They are not peer-reviewed.